Saturday, May 23, 2020

George Orwells Use of Appositives in A Hanging

An appositive—a noun or noun phrase that identifies or renames another noun—is a handy way of adding details to a sentence. The term comes from the Latin word for placing close by, and an appositive usually appears right after the word or phrase that it renames. Youve just seen one example of an appositive—in the first sentence of this article. Here, from the opening of George Orwells essay A Hanging, are two more: We were waiting outside the condemned cells, a row of sheds fronted with double bars, like small animal cages.He was a Hindu, a puny wisp of a man, with a shaven head and vague liquid eyes. A few paragraphs later, Orwell lines up a pair of appositives to identify another character: Francis, [1] the head jailer, [2] a fat Dravidian in a white drill suit and gold spectacles, waved his black hand. In each of Orwells sentences, the appositive could be substituted for the noun it renames (cells, Hindu, Francis). Or it could be deleted without changing the basic meaning of the sentence. Set off by commas, such appositives are said to be nonrestrictive. In some cases, an appositive might be thought of as a simplified adjective clause (a word group beginning with who or which). This next sentence, for example, relies on an adjective clause to identify the subject, hangman: The hangman, who was a gray-haired convict in the white uniform of the prison, was waiting beside the machine. Now look at George Orwells original version of the sentence, with the adjective clause reduced to a more concise appositive: The hangman, a gray-haired convict in the white uniform of the prison, was waiting beside the machine. Viewed this way, appositives offer a way to cut the clutter in our writing. And that, youll have to admit, makes it a handy little device—a compact grammatical structure. NEXTFor a more detailed discussion of appositives, see How to Build Sentences with Appositives.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Negative Impacts Of Smoking - 1547 Words

The most common problems that are destroying the health of young generations and killing thousands and thousands adults every day is smoking cigarette. The issue of smoking has become one of the most significant and controversial debates in Australia, due its health problem and the effect of the environment atmosphere. Researches and medics worldwide were studying the main causes that makes people smoke and why? (Backes, 2016). According to Dr Jewell‘s article, reveals that there are lots of factors that influencing young children to smoke. Factors such as social influence or peer pressure, curiosity, advertising, media as well as family (Jewell, 2015). This literature review will describe, summarise, evaluate and clarify the negative†¦show more content†¦However, parents and family are more responsible for the children as they’re growing. This will help the young kids to grow with respect and good appearance that will bring respectable value in the family. †¢ FAMILY The importance of parents in life is the essential thing that every child need. Father and mother serve as the role models not only through direct relations with their kids but through the example they present their attitude and behaviour inside the family and in the external world. Family play a big part in influential the behaviour and beliefs of an individual – through parent expectations and social media. When it comes to life influence, parents holds a major role in shaping the attitudes of the young people, which means that the negative and positive impact of teenagers who might develop a view independent of their close relative or parents. Parents play the main role in child is growth. They play a significant role in a lifestyle, mental health, and physical, social, financial as well as career development. This shows that they control and prepare the pathway or the footprint for them to follow. This insinuate that adolescences are more likely to smoke if they close rel ative or parents were smokers, even if they quit smoking long time ago. Teenagers with an older brother or sister who smoke s are also more likely to start smoking cigarettes. †¢ ADVERTISING Social media have become very powerful and important partsShow MoreRelatedOutcome of Banning Smoking in Public Areas663 Words   |  3 Pagesasthma problems has dropped by after smoking was banned in public places. Researchers from the University of Maastricht and the University of Edinburgh studied 250,000 hospital visits and more than 2.5 million births for asthma attacks in children. It was discovered that â€Å"preterm births and hospital attendance for asthma has fallen by 10% â€Å" especially in areas where smoking is banned. Though banning smoking at in public places would possibly have a negative effect, because people may start to smokeRead MoreBan Smoking On Public Beaches855 Words   |  4 PagesThe ban of smoking on public beaches in America has increased since it started in the 1970s. This is a controversial issue as not all people agree on banning smoking on public beaches, mainly smokers. People that are strongly against smoking on public beaches tend to be parents and non-smokers alike. They find it absolutely unacceptable to smoke on public beaches as they see it as an unhealthy and a harmful habit, and do not want to be around it. Apart from disapproval of non smokers, there is otherRead MorePeer Pressure Essay693 Words   |  3 Pagescontemporary issue and argue how it has and will continue to have an impact on your generation. Peer Pressure. We have all at one stage in our lives, experienced it. We all know what it feels like to be pressured by a peer. Peer pressure today impacts on kids of my generation in a huge aspect. Teenagers feel social pressure in numerous ways such as clothing, music and entertainment choices, to unsafe areas such as drugs, alcohol and smoking. During adolescence, kids emphasize their independence and exploreRead MoreWorkaholism1537 Words   |  7 Pages Impacts on Canada’s Population Health Workaholism is a growing behavioural epidemic negatively affecting the population health in Canada. It’s also a popular belief that workaholics are driven by a poor sense of self and are quite miserable, but there are actually different types of workaholism, and the workaholic may actually be happy diving into the multitude of tasks at work. It is not necessarily thought of in a negative way by the individual experiencing it, even though itRead MoreShould Smoking Be Public Places?1110 Words   |  5 Pages Will smoking be convenient in your life? Smoking is the rubbish commodity to buy, sell and to utilize it. Smoking nowadays is creating obstacles to non-smokers and in general pollution to the environment. Some people are habituated to smoking and is now have become a far- reaching issue. Due to smoking it will generate complications in the future. Smoking should be banned in public places. This includes it harms people nearby smokers, causes litter and people can be affected with long-term diseaseRead MoreSmoking Is An Addictive Habit That Has Been Killing People All Over The World1123 Words   |  5 PagesSmoking is an addictive habit that has been killing people all over the world for hundreds of years. About 25% of adults smoke and about 30% of all adolescents use some type of tobacco product (â€Å"Smoking†). Statistics show that the majority of tobacco users began as a teenager, around thirteen years of age (Miller). The human population is supposed to have innate instin cts to do all they can to survive and extend their lives, but individuals still make the choice to smoke and may not take into accountRead MoreSmoking By Elton Glaser857 Words   |  4 Pagesstory: positive and negative. Each perspective holds influence over the one experiencing the action, the positive side can impact one to do insightful and helpful deeds, while the negative side may force one to experience a moral dilemma. Knowing harmful effects of the issue may be enough for some people but others feel the admirable factors outweigh the inadequate ones. Elton Glaser explains that knowing the negative does not always work to avoid awful habits in the poem Smoking. Having knowledgeRead MoreEffects of Smoking Ban Laws Essay1327 Words   |  6 Pages Introduction Smoking bans are policies, which include occupational safety, regulations regarding health, and criminal laws, which prohibit tobacco smoking in public areas and in work places. The rationale behind these laws is to prevent non-smokers from the effects of second-hand smoke that may among other things result in lung cancer, heart diseases, emphysema and many other diseases. Smoking ban laws make smoking indoors in many countries worldwide illegal, with scientific evidence clearly showingRead MoreTobacco Consumption in Adolescents: A Health Promotion Campaign1263 Words   |  6 Pagesissue of smoking in adolescents from the Australian society. The discussion will include a recent campaign that has been created to cut the morbidity rates of smoking in adolescents from the Western Australian (WA) region. The campaign â€Å"Smarter than Smoking† provided an effective health promotion strategies to reduce tobacco enhancement for adolescents aged 10-15 years old. The essay will prov ide a better analysis on tobacco consumption in adolescents. Thus, portraying the potential impacts of smokingRead MoreEssay about Smoking Will Kill You Softly954 Words   |  4 PagesDo you smoke? Have you ever stopped to think about how smoking is affecting your body and your life? Smoking has been shown to be dangerous to health. It is dangerous not only to those who smoke, but to non-smokers and unborn children who are exposed to secondhand smoke. That exposure can be significant, especially to those who live or work with a smoker. In reality, most of the smoke from a burning cigarette does not get sucked down into a smoker’s lungs – it escapes into the air, where it can be

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

What You Need to Know About the Crusades

The medieval Crusade was a holy war. For a conflict to be officially considered a Crusade, it had to be sanctioned by the pope and conducted against groups seen as enemies of Christendom. Initially, only those expeditions to the Holy Land (Jerusalem and associated territory) were considered Crusades. More recently, historians have also recognized campaigns against heretics, pagans, and Muslims in Europe as Crusades. How the Crusades Began For centuries, Jerusalem had been governed by Muslims, but they tolerated Christian pilgrims because they helped the economy. Then, in the 1070s, Turks (who were also Muslim) conquered these holy lands and mistreated Christians before realizing how useful their goodwill (and money) could be. The Turks also threatened the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Alexius asked the pope for assistance, and Urban II, seeing a way to harness the violent energy of Christian knights, made a speech calling for them to take back Jerusalem. Thousands responded, resulting in the First Crusade. When the Crusades Began and Ended Urban II made his speech calling for Crusade at the Council of Clermont in November, 1095. This is seen as the start of the Crusades. However, the reconquista of Spain, an important precursor to crusading activity, had been going on for centuries. Traditionally, the fall of Acre in 1291 marks the end of the Crusades, but some historians extend them to 1798, when Napoleon expelled the Knights Hospitaller from Malta. Crusader Motivations There were as many different reasons for crusading as there were crusaders, but the single most common reason was piety. To crusade was to go on pilgrimage, a holy journey of personal salvation. Whether that also meant giving up virtually everything and willingly facing death for God, bending to peer or family pressure, indulging bloodlust without guilt, or seeking adventure or gold or personal glory depended entirely on who was doing the crusading. Who Went on Crusade People from all walks of life, from peasants and laborers to kings and queens, answered the call. Even the King of Germany, Frederick I Barbarossa, went on multiple Crusades. Women were encouraged to give money and stay out of the way, but some went on crusade anyway. When nobles crusaded, they often brought huge retinues, whose members may not necessarily have wanted to go along. At one time, scholars theorized that younger sons more frequently went crusading in search of estates of their own; however, crusading was an expensive business, and recent research indicates it was lords and elder sons who were more likely to crusade. The Number of Crusades Historians have numbered eight expeditions to the Holy Land, though some lump the 7th and 8th together for a total of seven crusades. However, there was a steady stream of armies from Europe to the Holy Land, so it is nearly impossible to distinguish separate campaigns. In addition, some crusades have been named, including the Albigensian Crusade, the Baltic (or Northern) Crusades, the Peoples Crusade, and the Reconquista. Crusader Territory Upon the success of the First Crusade, the Europeans set up a king of Jerusalem and established what is known as the Crusader States. Also called outremer (French for across the sea), the Kingdom of Jerusalem controlled Antioch and Edessa, and it was divided into two territories since these places were so far-flung. When ambitious Venetian merchants convinced warriors of the Fourth Crusade to capture Constantinople in 1204, the resulting government was referred to as the Latin Empire, to distinguish it from the Greek, or Byzantine, empire they had claimed. Crusading Orders Two important military orders were established in the early 12th century: the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar. Both were monastic orders whose members took vows of chastity and poverty, yet they were also militarily trained. Their primary purpose was to protect and aid pilgrims to the Holy Land. Both orders did very well financially, particularly the Templars, who were notoriously arrested and disbanded by Philip IV of France in 1307. The Hospitallers outlasted the Crusades and continue, in a much-altered form, to this day. Other orders were established later, including the Teutonic Knights. Impact of the Crusades Some historians -- particularly Crusades scholars -- consider the Crusades the single most important series of events in the Middle Ages. The significant changes in the structure of European society that took place in the 12th and 13th centuries were long considered the direct result of Europes participation in the Crusades. This view no longer holds as strongly as it once did. Historians have recognized many other contributing factors in this complex time. Yet there is no doubt the Crusades contributed greatly to changes in Europe. The effort of raising armies and providing supplies for Crusaders stimulated the economy; trade benefited, as well, especially once the Crusader States were established. Interaction between the East and West affected European culture in areas of art and architecture, literature, mathematics, science and education. And Urbans vision of directing the energies of warring knights outward succeeded in reducing war within Europe. Having a common foe and common objective, even for those who didnt participate in the Crusade, fostered a view of Christendom as a united entity. This has been a very basic introduction to the Crusades. For a better understanding of this extremely complex and greatly-misunderstood topic, please explore our Crusades Resources or read one of the Crusades Books recommended by your Guide.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

James Joyces Dubliners Essay - 1450 Words

Dubliners James Joyce wrote Dubliners during the 20th century. As Joyce wrote Dubliners, he probably intended on telling what Ireland was like at the time that he wrote it. He uses many different themes in this book. He specifically uses the themes of light and dark and autonomy and responsibility to illustrate what life in Ireland is like. The stories that use these themes are â€Å"An Encounter†, â€Å"The Boarding House†, and â€Å"The Dead†. Each story contains the themes of light/autonomy representing freedom and dark/responsibility representing duty. In â€Å"An Encounter†, the theme of freedom is expressed through out the whole chapter. An example of the theme of freedom representing autonomy happens as the boys plan†¦show more content†¦He felt that it was his duty to tell him that he read all the books so; the man wouldn’t think he was stupid. The man is an example of dark because he is very strange acting. He comes off like a pretty nice guy talking about books and girls. He starts doing odd things such as walking back and forth. As he returns, He asks the one boy if Mahony got many whoopings. He starts talking about how much he would love whooping boys if they had sweethearts. They were nervous to be around this guy. They finally got the courage to get up and leave while he was talking. The theme of freedom is found in â€Å"The Boarding House†. An example of this is shown when Polly made dinner for Mr. Doran. They instantly started liking each other: â€Å"They used to go upstairs together on tiptoe, each with a candle, and on the third landing exchange reluctant good-nights. They used to kiss. He remembered well her eyes, the touch of her hand and his delirium† (62). This shows right here that they were attracted to each other. They didn’t think about the consequences of their actions before they did it. They were free to do what they wanted, so they thought. They probably didn’t think that Polly’s mother was watching them since they showed interest in each other. Another example of freedom and light is when they flirted with each other. Flirting can be looked at as light. The minute they saw each other, a light could have went off in both of their mindsShow MoreRelatedJames Joyce’s Dubliners Essay149 3 Words   |  6 PagesJames Joyce’s Dubliners is a collection of short stories that aims to portray middle class life in Dublin, Ireland in the early twentieth century. Most of the stories are written with themes such as entrapment, paralysis, and epiphany, which are central to the flow of the collection of stories as a whole. Characters are usually limited financially, socially, and/or by their environment; they realize near the end of each story that they cannot escape their unfortunate situation in Dublin. These storiesRead MoreParalysis In James Joyces Dubliners1086 Words   |  5 PagesHopefully this Essay is Slightly More Intelligible than Finnegan’s Wake: Dubliners Essay â€Å"To be or not to be, that is the question.† Hamlet’s famous quotation implies only two solutions: to be, or to not be. However, there is another option that Shakespeare never explored: to remain paralyzed between the two states, unable to commit to either. James Joyce’s Dubliners is a collection of short stories first published in 1914, that follows the inhabitants of Ireland. Published nearly a half a centuryRead MoreEssay on James Joyces Dubliners1145 Words   |  5 PagesJames Joyces Dubliners Throughout James Joyce’s â€Å"Dubliners† there are four major themes that are all very connected these are regret, realization, self hatred and Moral paralysis, witch is represented with the actual physical paralysis of Father Flynn in â€Å"The Sisters†. In this paper I intend to explore the different paths and contours of these themes in the four stories where I think they are most prevalent ,and which I most enjoyed â€Å"Araby†, â€Å"Eveline†, â€Å"The Boarding House†, and â€Å"A LittleRead MoreJames Joyces Dubliners Essay1430 Words   |  6 PagesA Literary Analysis of Dubliners James Joyce created a collection of short stories in Dubliners describing the time and place he grew up in. At the time it was written, Joyce intends to portray to the people of Dublin the problems with the Irish lifestyles. Many of these stories share a reoccurring theme of a character’s desire to escape his or her responsibilities in regards to his relationship with his, job, money situation, and social status; this theme is most prevalent in AfterRead More Triangular Structure in James Joyces Dubliners1970 Words   |  8 PagesTriangular Structure in James Joyces Dubliners Within the body of literary criticism that surrounds James Joyces Dubliners is a tendency to preclude analysis beyond an Irish level, beyond Joyces own intent to create the uncreated conscience of [his] race. However, in order to place the text within an appropriately expansive context, it seems necessary to examine the implications of the volumes predominant thematic elements within the broader scope of human nature. The psychic dramaRead MoreReligion in James Joyces Dubliners Essay1452 Words   |  6 PagesReligion in James Joyces Dubliners Religion was an integral part of Ireland during the modernist period, tightly woven into the social fabric of its citizens. The Catholic Church wa s a longstandingRead MoreSymbolism Used in James Joyces Dubliners2126 Words   |  9 Pagesothers. James Joyce, a well-known Irish author, uses symbolism repeatedly throughout his collection of short stories published in 1916. In these stories, titled Dubliners, Joyce uses symbolism not only to enhance the stories, but to also show the hidden, underlying message of each story without coming out and saying it directly. Joyce’s stories are centered on the problems of Dublin and through his use of symbolism Joyce is able to focus attention on what problem each story is addressing. James JoyceRead MoreEssay on James Joyces Dubliners1404 Words   |  6 PagesDubliners James Joyce wrote the book Dubliners; Joyce expresses many different types of emotions throughout the book. The emotions portray individuals in society, and light and dark. The emotions of individuals are examined throughout the stories by other members in society. The stories that express the ideas are: â€Å"The Encounter,† â€Å"Eveline†, and â€Å"The Dead.† The symbolism of individuals in society expresses many different situations that are happening in the characters lives. TheRead MoreJames Joyces Dubliners Essay1422 Words   |  6 PagesDubliners In the story Dubliners by James Joyce, he writes about a few different themes, some of these being autonomy, responsibility, light, and dark. The most important of the themes though must be the individual character in the story against the community and the way they see it. I have chosen to take a closer look at â€Å"Araby,† â€Å"Eveline,† and â€Å"The Dead† because the great display of these themes I feel is fascinating. Many things affect the way the individual characters seeRead MoreEssay on Evelines Decision in James Joyces Dubliners790 Words   |  4 PagesEvelines Decision in James Joyces Dubliners      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the short story, Eveline, James Joyce introduces us to the life of a young woman named Eveline. She has the opportunity to escape with Frank, the man she thinks she loves, to a faraway country in search of a new life.   Instead, she decides to stay in the dreary and gloomy life she already knows.   To understand Evelines final decision to stay we have to analyze the reasons that prevent Eveline from pursuing a better

Stance Essay Free Essays

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Epic Of Gilgamesh Essay Immortality Example For Students

Epic Of Gilgamesh Essay Immortality â€Å"But then I ask the question: How many men must die before we can really have a free and true and peaceful society?How long will it take?If we can catch the spirit, and the true meaning of this experience, I believe that this nation can be transformed into a society of love, of justice, peace, and brotherhood where all men can really be brothers.† -Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Since the beginning of early civilization, differences in races and cultures have been a part of society. Along with these differences, there evolved a hatred against what was not considered â€Å" the norm† . For many years, prejudice, especially in the form of racism, has sparked many hate crimes and wars. Over generations, people have devised strategies to combat these injustices in the most effective way possible, whether it be civil or violent ways of protest. August Wilson’s Pulitzer Prize winning play, â€Å" The Piano†, is set in the early 1930s at a time when racism was spreading like wild fire. The play takes a close look into two dynamically different approaches to overcoming prejudice in America. Although their strategies differ greatly, both Berniece and Boy Willie both find ways to combat the problems associated with living in a racist culture. Slavery is still fresh in the minds of many blacks and whites during the ‘30s and so are many harsh feelings. Berniece and Boy Willie tackle the racism of their time in the same way their parents did. Bernice’s personality is very similar to her mother’s, Mama Ola. She chooses to avoid conflicts over racism whenever possible, even if it means keeping quiet about subjects that should be addressed. She finds it easier to â€Å" lay low† than to create a situation. Berniece views the history of the piano with the same disdain and sorrow that her mother held for so many years. In one of many heated arguments with Boy Willie, Berniece says, â€Å" Mama Ola polished over this piano with her tears for seventeen years seventeen years worth of cold nights and an empty bed. For what a piano? To get even with somebody. and what did it ever lead to? more killing and more thieving.† When Boy Willie speaks, one can almost hear the vigor and determination of his father, Papa Boy Charles’ voice. He, much like his father, believes in the theory: â€Å"by whatever means necessary.† Boy Willie is willing to do whatever it takes and remove whoever stands in his way; and that includes getting rid of any white man that poses a threat against his dreams. Boy Willie is very proud that his father gave his life to steal the piano, with the carvings of his family’s history, from Sutter, the man who enslaved his great grandmother and his grandfather. Papa Boy Charles believed that his family would always be slaves as long as Sutter still had ownership of the piano. Boy Willie tells Berniece that she should tell her daughter, Maretha, about the story behind the piano so that she can be proud of her grandfather. â€Å"You ought to mark down on the calendar the day that Papa Boy Charles brought that piano into the house. ..throw a party.. .have a celebration.† Although their points of view are similar to their parents, they are very opposed in their strategies for dealing with racism. At a time when racism is at its peak due to unresolved issues on both sides, the future for blacks in America seems bleak. Although slavery has ended, brutal attacks against blacks still exist and many are worse off financially than they were as slaves. Berniece looks at her lifestyle from a realist’s point of view with little optimism. She sees no chance of growth for blacks and expresses this when she says, â€Å" I’m going to tell her the truth.. .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 , .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .postImageUrl , .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 , .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114:hover , .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114:visited , .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114:active { border:0!important; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114:active , .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114 .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u726b64682c5961b4c973656a6f847114:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: 12 Angry Men at the bottom with the rest of us that’s just where she living.† Berneice believes that blacks are at the bottom of life and they may never overcome their situation. Although she believes that blacks can find success; she feels that successs is limited to the boundaries in which blacks are born. She follows the idea that some blacks refer to as â€Å" the house negro mentality†. This nickname was coined for those slaves who were comfortable with their lifestyles because they saw nothing good that could come from freedom. Berniece believes blacks must gratefully take what is handed to them and work with what they receive. If they become to greedy they may wind up with nothing. Surprisingly, Boy Willie chooses to be optimistic in spite of his surroundings. In a world that tells him that there is no future for people of color, Boy Willie is an idealist. He sees a future for himself beyond the color of his skin and is determined to go out and grab it. He also knows that he cannot wait for white men to drop success on his lap; he has to get it himself. Despite his sister’s opinions, Boy Willie does not see himself at the bottom but instead at the top of society. â€Å"I’m living at the top of life. I ain’t gonna just take my life and throw it away at the bottomI’m in the world like everybody else. † He further stresses this opinion when he says, â€Å" how a person views himself is how he will live†. Boy Willie tells Berniece that if a person chooses to believe he is at the bottom and there is no future; that is how he will live at the bottom with no future.He also believes that he is the same and deserves just as much as any white man. He sees himself as an equal and perhaps, better off than some white men. Boy Willie refuses to believe that white men are somehow better than him or deserve more than him. Boy Willie and Berneice definitely differ in how they handle racist situations and the injustices committed against them. Berniece chooses to battle racism in a more submissive way. She sees only the pain and heartache that can result from taking a stand against prejudice. Her father died trying to prove his manhood to white men and she sees nothing good that can come from speaking out. Speaking out can only make the living situation for blacks worse in Berneice’s opinion. Boy Willie takes a more militant approach to battling racism. Boy Willie is bold and outspoken and does not care whose feet he steps on to get his point across. He is fearless and perhaps foolish when he says, â€Å" a nigger that ain’t afraid to die is the worst kind of nigger for the white man†. Boy Willie is willing to fight, or even kill, any white man that stands between him and freedom. He tells Wining Boy that no white man could ever mistreat him because he refuses to be mistreated. He treats people the way they treat him. No stranger to jails, Boy Willie shows complete disregard for the laws of the land. He feels that the law only applies to him when it is convenient and satisfies his needs. He feels that the law was not designed for him but against him, and unless it fits his purposes he will not abide by it. Boy Willie refuses to allow anyone to rule over him in any manner, whether that man is black or white. In the play, â€Å" The Piano Lesson†, August Wilson’s characters offer two popular ways used by blacks for surviving in a racist culture. In one case, the character of Berniece choose to live in silence in order to avoid any repurcussions that would result from speaking out. Boy Willie chooses to fight any man that steps in his way and tries to prevent him from finding the oppurtunity and freedom that he deserves. Although some forms of their strategies are effective; in the long run, they are both terribly wrong. .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 , .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .postImageUrl , .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 , .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3:hover , .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3:visited , .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3:active { border:0!important; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3:active , .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3 .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u87c697e4bdf75a5bf83fb9bc30d3cee3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Empowerment And Participation Essay By choosing to live in denial about the way blacks are treated; Berniece is actually allowing this kind of abuse to continue. Unless people speak out when they are unjustly treated, no change can ever occur. One must look within himself to find the courage to stand up for what he believes in despite what backlash may incur. Berneice is definitely safer in comparison to Boy Willie’s ideas. His behavior and ideas are brash, foolish, and self-destructive. His hateful ways can offer no solution to the present state of racism. By choosing to be headstrong, the only achievement he may receive for his actions is death. Violence and outright disobedience is never a recipe for peace. The Reverend Martin Luther King,Jr. probably best understood the importance of devising a strategy that could combat racism and bring about peace among all races. Through the means of peaceful protest, teaching, understanding, and love; people, the world over can look towards a future of peace.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Employee Relationship and Planned Change System

Questions: TR Ltd is a medium sized manufacturing company. Its Board of Directors have been concerned about output and efficiency levels, and recently reached a decision to radically reorganize the assembly division in pursuit of increased efficiency. The following is an extract of a conversation which occurred between the Managing Director (MD), Finance director (FD), Human Resources Director (HRD) and the Production Director (PD) after the latest Board meetingMD: Well, its been a long process, but at last I think were ready to roll things out.FD: What amazes me is how weve been able to keep this quiet from the staff no one has any idea what is about to happenMD: It shouldnt bother them too much, after all in the present environment they should be happy just to have a jobHRD: With respect, Sir, I think some of the assembly line workers may be very concerned, after all they will be moving to new contracts of employment, on lower pay scalesMD: Nonsense, this move safeguards the future of the com pany and their jobs. A bigger, more successful company will provide opportunities for promotion and advancement in the future The situation is a winner for everyone What do you think John?PD: I still have some concerns that we havent fully understood the assembly process the work which the assembly line actually performsMD: Of course we understand the process; we have analysed all of the production statistics, weve consulted with industry experts and the company which manufactures the assembly equipment, weve studied the system in operation elsewhere we fully understand all the technical aspects of how the system will work!HRD: Technicalities are only one part of it work teams will be broken up, jobs will become simpler, more repetitive the team leader grade disappears Staff may not like itMD: I dont employ them to like it, I employ them to do the job which they are told to do! Do you foresee problems with the staff?HRD: It is possible a lot will depend on how we actually roll out the changesMD: Thats all in hand. Everyone will receive a letter with their next pay slip detailing the new salary scales and terms and conditions of employment, including their new duties. The start date will be 1 October, and thats non-negotiable.HRD: Have you considered what we should do if the staff do not cooperate with the new system?MD: Thats simple well discipline or dismiss anyone whos not willing to go along with it! Only three things matter efficiency, sales and profit. Questions:1. (i) With reference to both the case AND the relevant literature, discuss whether staff are likely to resist the planned changes; use your answer to identify the reasons for resistance to change. (50%)(ii) The Managing Director clearly advocates the use of coercion to overcome any resistance which might occur. Through reference to the relevant literature critically evaluate the full range of measures which are available to management in attempting to overcome resistance. Illustrate your answ er through reference to the case study scenario. (50%)2. Through reference to the planned change literature, recommend a model of planned changed which TRs management could have used in implementing the changes. Critically evaluate the advantages which the use of such a model would bring to the situation. Answers: Introduction Changes are inevitable for the business success. The process followed by the companies to introduce changes within the organization, depends upon various reasons. Changes are introduced for reducing the operational expenses, improve the productivity for the company, and increase the profit earning margin. The need for brilliant concepts for implementing organizational changes has been increasing. However, the changes planned by the company in the operational activities and cost reduction can be resisted by the staffs. This report has been prepared on the TR Limited Company. The management of the company has proposed to reduce the operational expenses by reducing the pay structure of the staffs. However, the changes were not informed to the employees of the company (Aldrich, Ruef, 2006) Relevance of the change management system within the company Due to turbulent economic condition, it has become imperative to introduce planned organizational changes. Implementing changes within the company is a complex task, and the negative impact related to the same needs to be analysed well in advance. Changes can positively affect the staffs, clients, stakeholders, and others involved with the company. Thus, planning has to be done, before implementing the desired changes within the management. Any changes that can negatively impact the willingness of the staffs to work for the company have to be evaluated. This would help the management to work on an alternative solution through which the problem can be resolved. Sustainable change has to be related with the behavioural changes that impacts the business performance (Bagozzi et al., 2002). Staff resistance to the planned changes The company has proposed to introduce changes with the current pay structure for the staffs. Proposed changes would be informed to the employees at the time of the next pay. This would be done by sending the employees a letter that would state the changes in the pay structure, along with the new designated job. As per the HRM department, the staffs would resist the changes as it was had impacted the earning ability of the individual. However the management of the company wasnt willing to agree with the terms of the staffs. This was because; the management had aimed to improve the profit earning margin for the company (Balogun, and Hope Haily, 2004). Resistance of the staffs Changes having a negative impact on the staffs are not usually accepted by the employees of the company. Majority of the staffs are against the change process, as it can affect the performance and other factors. Thus, the management has to draft effective policies through which the changes can be accepted by the employees, with less resistance. For this, it is essential to improve about the proposed changes, along with its impact. In this process, the change management programme needs to be planned and implemented in an effective manner (Bruhn et al., 2001). Reduction in the pay structure or change in the job structure can affect the productivity of the employees. This would then affect the production plan for the company. Thus, it is necessary for the management to introduce an effective plan through which the required changes can be introduced within the company. In this process, the management has to communicate the factors related to changes with the staffs. This is also done with an intention of preparing the staffs to accept the proposed changes by the management. Some of the factors or behaviours associated with the change resistance have to be analysed by the managers. This would help in drafting plan for resisting the plan prepared by the management (Buchanan et al., 2005). Experts believe that staffs resist changes regardless of the nature for the change. In this case, it is imperative for the management to highlight the factors or benefits associated with the change factors. Every change is viewed by the staffs to be a risk, and this is one of the reasons for resisting the changes. The differences can be overpowered through reliable and clear communication. Through this process the management can discuss the reason for introducing the changes, the method that would be followed, and the impact about the changes. Thus the sources for resistance for changes have to be analysed. The anticipated objections needs to be analysed, and corrective measures to reduce the same has to be implemented (Burke, 2002). Literature review As per Burke 2009, there are 7 important steps that need to be analysed for implementing changes within the company. In this method, it is essential to mobilise different resources available with the company by identifying the problem associated with the operational activities. In this case, staff resistance is one of the major concerns that can affect the business performance. Thus, the management need to find a positive solution to solve the issue and find the best solution. Effective communication about the reason for introducing the changes and the benefits associated with the same for the company and the employees needs to be informed to the clients. Through effective communication process, it is possible to develop a shared vision between the company and the employees of the company. This would enable the management to find the best solution through which the required changes can be introduced (Burnes, 2004). The process for communication has to be simple and effective, and this can be done through effective leadership skills. The changes in the policies, rules, and structures have to be planned and implemented by the management. Such changes have been proposed to introduce required changes through which the productivity for the company can be improved. The management of the company has to plan the steps that would have to be followed for introducing the changes. This could be done by introducing the changes in a particular department or the whole company. Such a decision is quite important as it would help the management in analysing the challenges and finding a perfect solution to the existing problem. The stages involved in the method for the change process has to be analysed and the same needs to be monitored. This would help the company in finding the perfect solution through which the issue could be solved (Cialdini, 2009). As per Darnton 2009, the theory associated with the planned change has to be implemented after evaluating different factors like the existing strategies, structures, staff reactions, and others. Through such understanding it is possible for the managers to adopt and implement an effective approach that would be helpful in implementing the changes. The factors related to the barriers or the facilitators needs to be identified. Some of the barriers are Resistance of the staffs Improper plan for implementing the strategies for introducing the changes Unexpected challenges faced by the management at the time of introducing the changes (Doyle, Claydon, and Buchanon, 2000) Motivational factors are Highlighting the benefits associated with the introduction of the changes Benefits to the company (Elrod II, and Tippett, 2002) Changes are planned and introduced by the company to improve the organizational development process. Through this method an effective framework for improving the thinking process related to the changes are analysed. In this process, the system and the steps that would be followed for introducing the planned changes has to be analysed. Through this method, the management would be able to analyse the impact of changes on various departments that functions within the company (Fernandez, and Rainey, 2006). Psychological contract In this process the belief of the individual related to the terms or conditions required for exchanging and maintaining relationship with the staffs has to be analysed. Management introduce changes for reducing the cost for the operations and expanding the business. However, such changes are viewed negatively by the employees of the company. Employees fear of losing jobs or reduction in the pay structure. These are some of the major reasons that affect the performance and productivity for the company. In this case, it is suggested for the company to maintain positive and ever-lasting relationship with the staffs. This is done by constantly discussing with the staffs about the proposed changes, and the mission of the company. In the psychological contract method, the company work towards Securing the staffs and their interest (Oreg, 2003) Develop strategies for proper work-life balance Provide flexibility Reward for the loyal services Through such process, the management of the company attempt to maintain positive and ever lasting relationship with the staffs. It is necessary for the management to treat the staffs equally, as this would enable the company to encourage the staffs to improve the productivity of the organization. Regardless of the changes proposed to be introduced by the company, it is necessary to ensure that the staffs work towards the objective achievement for the organization. This can be done by building positive relationship with the staffs. Negative factors can directly impact the wiliness of the staffs from various department of the company to work towards the goal achievement (Todnem, 2005). Factors affecting the resistance to change The changed proposed to be implemented by the company is expected to be resisted by the employees. In this case, the staffs or human undergo through 5 different stages, which are 1. Denial - The staffs of the company are bound to deny the proposed changes. This is because, the staffs fear about losing the benefits that has been provided to the members.2. Anger Changes are unacceptable for majority of the staffs. This is one of the reasons; the employees express anger or negative aspect about the proposed change.3. Bargaining - In some cases, the staffs of the company attempt to bargain with the management. This is being done with an intention of negotiating with the management (Turnley et al., 2000).4. Depression - The proposed changes can cause depress the staffs, especially the ones who are not willing to change jobs. Such depression can affect the work ability of the members.5. Acceptance - The propose changes and the benefits associated with the same are explained effectively to the members. This would increase the possibilities of acceptance of the changed planned proposed by the management. The challenges associated with such factors can be resolved by the management through effective communication. During this period the staffs needs to be provided with the required support that would encourage the members to work towards the goal achievement. Apart from this, the proposed changes need to be informed by the management well in advance. Immediate change with the pay structure can negatively affect the performance of the company and the staffs (Wiggins, 2008). Breakdown model for change The proposed changes can be broken down into simple and effective steps by the management. This would enable the management of the company to analyse the changes, and its impact on the production activities. In this method, it is possible for the management to inform about the changes and analyse the impact of such changes on the employees of the company. The differences noticed have to be worked upon, as this will not affect the performance of the company. Through the breakdown model, the company attempts to analyse the challenges that is bound to be faced with different departments. This would help in analysing the challenges and implementing an effective step through which the issues can be solved. With the help of such planning, it is possible for the management to overpower the factors related to resistance. At first, the reason for introducing the changes needs to be communicated with the members. The resistance or the factors affecting the productivity for the company has to b e analysed. This will help the management to continue with the production activities, despite of the proposed changes. TR can adopt the policy through which the proposed changes related to the management can be interacted with the members well in advance. Through this method, the changes can be implemented on a timely manner (Todnem, 2005). Conclusion Change management is quite an important factor. The reasons impacting the performance of the members or the staffs to accept the change has to be analysed. This would help the management in introducing the required changes through which the resistance can be minimised. It is essential to introduce the changes after analysing the benefits associated with the proposed changes. Benefits and challenges related to the same have to be communicated with the members. This has to be done to improve the relationship between the staffs and the management of the company. References Aldrich, H. E., Ruef, M. 2006. Organizations evolving, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Bagozzi, R., Gurnao-Canli, Z., and Priester, J. 2002. The Social Psychology of Consumer Behaviour. Buckingham: Open University Press Balogun, J. and Hope Haily, V. 2004. Exploring Strategic Change, 2nd Edn (London: Prentice Hall) Bruhn, J. G, Zajac, G. and Al-Kazemi, A. A. 2001. Ethical perspectives on employee participation in planned organizational change: A survey of two state public welfare agencies, Public Performance and Management Review, 25, 2, pp. 208-28. Buchanan, D., Fitzgerald, L., Ketley, D., Gollop, R., Louise Jones, J., Saint Lamont, S., Neath, a. and Whitby, E. 2005, Not going back: A review of the literature on sustaining organizational change, International Journal of Management Reviews, 7, 3, pp.189 205 Burke, W. W. 2002. Organizational Change: Theory and Practice (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications) Burke, W. W. 2009. Understanding organizations: The process of diagnosis. In W. W. Burke, D. G. Lake, J. W. Paine (Eds.), Organization change: A comprehensive reader (pp. 259 272). San Francisco: John Wiley Sons, Inc Burnes, B. 2004. Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Prentice Hall) Cialdini, R. B. 2009. Influence: Science and practice, 5th ed. New York: Quill, Prentice Hall. Darnton, A. 2008. Reference Report: An overview of behaviour change models and their uses Research report for the Government Social Research Unit Doyle, M., Claydon, T. and Buchanon 2000. Mixed results, lousy process: Contrasts and contradictions in the management experience of change. British Journal of Management, 11, pp. 59 80 Elrod II, P. D. and Tippett, D. D. 2002. The death valley of change, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 3, pp. 273 291 Fernandez, R. and Rainey, H.G. 2006 Managing Successful Organisational Change in the Public Sector: An Agenda for Research Practice, Public Administration Review, March/April, pp 168 176 (2) Oreg, S. 2003. Resistance to change: Developing an individual differences measure, Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 4, pp. 587-604 Todnem, R. 2005. Organisational Change Management: A Critical Review, Journal of Change Management, 5, 4, pp.369 380 Turnley, W. H. and Feldman, D. C. 2000. Re-examining the effects of psychological contract violations: Unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction as mediators, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, pp. 25-42 Wiggins, L. 2008/2009. Managing the ups and downs of change communication, Strategic Communication Management, 13, 1, pp20-23.